The FluorCams are imaging fluorometers that measure sequences of Chl-fluorescence images with user-defined irradiance protocols and timing of measurements. Fluorescence emission is induced by two (or more) panels of super-bright, light emitting diodes (LEDs) that provide measuring flashes. Photochemistry is driven by continuous actinic irradiance and/or by strong saturating pulses of light that are generated in a halogen lamp, equipped with a shutter, or in supplemental LED panels.
Fluorescence images are captured by a CCD camera. The images are taken at 12-bit resolution in 512 x 512 pixels (or 640 x 480 or 1392 x 1040 pixels) of a CCD chip. Up to fifty images can be taken in one second. Data are transmitted via a USB 2.0 port to a desktop computer or to a notebook.
The software package includes numerous image manipulation tools and also a Wizard with the most frequently used experimental protocols. For an experienced professional, the software offers a sophisticated programming language that can be used for designing novel timing and measurig sequences.
Typically, FluorCam is used to detect dynamics and spatial heterogeneity in fluorescence emission of plants. Kautsky effect, quenching analysis, and other transients are imaged and 2-dimensional maps – images of conventional fluorescence parameters – are calculated. Images of F0, FM, FV, F0′, FM’, FV’, NPQ, ΦPSII, FV/FM, FV’/FM’, RFd, qN, qP, and of other fluorescence parameters are used, for example, to investigate heterogeneity due to infection, senescence, abiotic stress, or mutation.
The standard FluorCam camera is of high resolution – typically 6.45 µm x 6.45 µm pixel size!
Measured objects can be as small as isolated chloroplasts or individual cells in the Fluorescence Kinetic Microscope or as large as small canopies in the Arch, Transect, or Rover FluorCams. In addition to standard imaging of chlorophyll fluorescence emission, one can use the FluorCam to image fluorescence emission of all varieties of fluorescent proteins – Handy GFPCam or Closed GFPCam.
- Open FluorCam is a highly modular instrument with flexible geometry. The LED panels and the light source generating saturating flashes can be arranged at various angles and distances from the sample. Also, the position of the camera relative to the sample is adjustable.
- Closed FluorCam represents a highly innovative, world-wide used system of multispectral kinetic fluorescence imaging. It consists of a CCD camera and four fixed LED panels. The LED panels provide uniform irradiance over samples up to 13 x 13 cm – suitable for small plants, detached leaves, algal dilutions, etc. The system allows dark adaptation. The advanced version allows kinetic fluorescence imaging, too.
- Handy FluorCam FC 1000-H is a portable system designed for kinetically resolved fluorescence imaging of leaves and small plants both in a field and laboratory. The whole instrument can be carried in a convenient bag over the shoulder and can run on batteries. The advanced version allows both GFP imaging and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging.
- Leaf Chamber FluorCam has all the imaging features of the other instruments of the FluorCam family, but it is designed for attachment to a leaf gas exchange chamber. Thus, the chlorophyll fluorescence imaging can be performed at the same time as the gas exchange measurements. A great advantage of the Leaf Chamber FluorCam is that the leaf chamber can be used to control precisely the environment of the sample, e.g., with respect to temperature, relative humidity and the partial pressure of various gasses that influence photosynthesis and transpiration (CO2, O2, water vapor).The Leaf Chamber FluorCam may be attached to standard chambers provided by manufacturers of leaf gas exchange systems (ADC, LiCor, PP Systems etc.) or can be adapted for use with other chambers. Fluorescence emission is induced by sets of super-bright orange (blue) LEDs that provide measuring flashes. The photochemistry is driven by orange (blue) continuous actinic light and/or strong pulses of actinic light. The FluorCam software automatically generates sequences of fluorescence images for easy visualization of photosynthetic differences between and within samples. Values are also presented numerically.
Customized FluorCams are complex multispectral imaging systems that are manufactured according to customers’ very specific needs. They attain all capabilities and features of the standard FluorCams. In addition other imaging and scoring units such as RGB camera for true color analysis can be incorporated into them. The specific construction of these customized systems makes them modular to fit the customer needs. The systems are designed to enable using them over large areas of the sample interest from single plant level up to field application and imaging of plant populations. Robust and stable construction of the Large Customized Imaging Systems is designed to suite all types of conditions from field environment, to greenhouse or lab application.
- Rover FC
- Transect FC
- Fluorescence Kinetic Microscope (FKM)